Most of the sodium in our diets comes from salt, or sodium chloride. Sodium has many critical biological functions like transmitting nerve impulses, contracting and relaxing muscle fibers, and maintaining proper fluid balance.
Recommended intake of sodium for healthy adults aged 19 -50 years is 1.5 g or 1,500 mg, which is a salt equivalent of 3,800 mg, or 2/3 teaspoon. The upper limit (UL) of sodium intake is 2.3 g/2,300 mg, or one teaspoon. of salt.
Many Americans are getting as much as 3,400 mg of sodium per day, on average, 77% coming from processed foods. The kidneys regulate the body’s sodium level by getting rid of any excess. However, when there is excess sodium in the bloodstream, our kidneys can’t keep up. This excess sodium means an increase of water in the cells, and as this fluid increases, so does blood volume, creating more work for the heart. Due to increased pressure in the blood vessels and often stiffened vessel walls, chronic high blood pressure and increased risk of heart attack or stroke can result.
How to find a healthy balance of sodium.:
Choose More Often: Foods Lower in Sodium
- Chicken and turkey (with skin removed)
- Fresh fish or rinsed canned fish such as tuna or sardines
- Pregnant and nursing mothers: Talk to your health care provider to find out the types of fish you can eat that are lower in mercury.
- Canned foods packed in water
- Low-sodium or reduced-sodium cheeses
- Low-salt chips, nuts, and pretzels
- Plain rice, noodles, or pasta
- Homemade, low-sodium, or reduced-sodium soups
- Fresh, frozen, “no salt added,” or rinsed canned (Rinse canned foods to reduce the sodium.) vegetables
- Spices, herbs, and flavorings such as cilantro, parsley, garlic powder, onion powder, vinegar, and chili powder
Choose Less Often: Foods Higher in Sodium
- Smoked and cured meats such as bacon, ham, sausage, hotdogs, and bologna
- Canned fish such as tuna and sardines (that are not rinsed) and salted/dried c